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Historic Preservation - Technical Procedures

Spectitle:

Poulticing Lubricating And Petroleum Oil Stains From Concrete

Procedure code:

0371031R

Source:

Hstrc Concrete: Investigation & Rpr/Pre-Conf Training - 1989

Division:

Concrete

Section:

Concrete Cleaning

Last Modified:

02/24/2012

Details:

Poulticing Lubricating And Petroleum Oil Stains From Concrete



POULTICING LUBRICATING AND PETROLEUM OIL STAINS FROM CONCRETE


THE CLEANING OR REMOVAL OF STAINS FROM CONCRETE MAY INVOLVE THE
USE OF LIQUIDS, DETERGENTS OR SOLVENTS WHICH MAY RUN OFF ON
ADJACENT MATERIAL, DISCOLOR THE CONCRETE OR DRIVE THE STAINS DEEPER
INTO POROUS CONCRETE.  USE THE PRODUCTS AND TECHNIQUES DESCRIBED
HERE ONLY FOR THE COMBINATIONS OF DIRT/STAIN AND CONCRETE SPECIFIED.


PART 1---GENERAL

1.01 SUMMARY

    A.   This procedure includes guidance on removing oil stains
         such as lubricating and petroleum oil from concrete using
         chemical solvents in poultices and bandages.  Four
         different methods are described.

    B.   Safety Precautions:

         1.   DO NOT save unused portions of stain-removal
              materials.

         2.   DO NOT store any chemicals in unmarked containers.

         3.   EXCELLENT VENTILATION MUST BE PROVIDED WHEREVER ANY
              SOLVENT IS USED.  USE RESPIRATORS WITH SOLVENT
              FILTERS.

         4.   No use of organic solvents indoors should be
              allowed without substantial air movement.  Use only
              spark-proof fans near operations involving
              flammable liquids.

         5.   Provide adequate clothing and protective gear where
              the chemicals are indicated to be dangerous.

         6.   Have available antidote and accident treatment
              chemicals where noted.

    C.   See 01100-07-S for general project guidelines to be
         reviewed along with this procedure.  These guidelines
         cover the following sections:

         1.   Safety Precautions

         2.   Historic Structures Precautions

         3.   Submittals

         4.   Quality Assurance

         5.   Delivery, Storage and Handling

         6.   Project/Site Conditions

         7.   Sequencing and Scheduling

         8.   General Protection (Surface and Surrounding)

         These guidelines should be reviewed prior to performing
         this procedure and should be followed, when applicable,
         along with recommendations from the Regional Historic
         Preservation Officer (RHPO).


PART 2---PRODUCTS

2.01 MANUFACTURERS

    A.   Diedrich Technologies, Inc.
         7373 S. 6th Street
         Oak, Creek, WI  53154
         800/323-3565

2.02 MATERIALS

    NOTE:  Chemical products are sometimes sold under a common
    name.  This usually means that the substance is not as pure as
    the same chemical sold under its chemical name.  The grade of
    purity of common name substances, however, is usually adequate
    for stain removal work, and these products should be purchased
    when available, as they tend to be less expensive.  Common
    names are indicated below by an asterisk (*).

    A.   Strong Soap or Scouring Powder

         -OR-

         Proprietary degreasing cleaner such as "Diedrich 920
         Asphalt & Tar Remover" (Diedrich Technologies, Inc.), or
         approved equal.

         -OR-

         Proprietary engine degreaser such as "GUNK".

    B.   For Heavy Stains:

         Method 1 (See Section 3.02 G.1.)

         1.   Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH):

              a.   A white brittle solid that is a strong caustic
                   base used especially in making soap, rayon,
                   and paper.

              b.   Other chemical or common names include Caustic
                   soda*; Hydrate of soda*; Hydrated oxide of
                   sodium*; Lye*; Mineral alkali*; Soda lye*;
                   Sodic hydrate*; Sodium hydrate*.

              c.   Potential Hazards:  CORROSIVE TO FLESH AND
                   FLAMMABLE (WHEN IN CONTACT WITH ORGANIC
                   SOLVENTS).

              d.   Available from chemical supply house,
                   drugstore or pharmaceutical supply
                   distributor, hardware store, or paint store.

         2.   Sodium Orthophosphate:

              a.   Other chemical or common names include
                   Tribasic sodium phosphate; Trisodium
                   orthophosphate; Trisodium phosphate; TSP*;
                   Phosphate of soda*.

              b.   Potential Hazards:  CORROSIVE TO FLESH.

              c.   Available from chemical supply distributor,
                   supermarket, grocery, or hardware store.

         -OR-

         Method 2 (See Section 3.02 G.2.):

         1.   Mineral spirits:

              a.   A petroleum distillate that is used especially
                   as a paint or varnish thinner.

              b.   Other chemical or common names include
                   Benzine* (not Benzene); Naphtha*; Petroleum
                   spirits*; Solvent naphtha*.

              c.   Potential Hazards:  TOXIC AND FLAMMABLE.

              d.   Safety Precautions:

                   1)   AVOID REPEATED OR PROLONGED SKIN CONTACT.

                   2)   ALWAYS wear rubber gloves when handling
                        mineral spirits.

                   3)   If any chemical is splashed onto the
                        skin, wash immediately with soap and
                        water.

              e.   Available from construction specialties
                   distributor, hardware store, paint store, or
                   printer's supply distributor.

         -OR-

         Method 3 (See Section 3.02 G.3.):

         1.   Acetone (C3H6O):

              a.   A volatile fragrant flammable liquid ketone
                   used chiefly as a solvent and in organic
                   synthesis and found abnormally in urine.

              b.   Other chemical or common names include
                   Dimethyl ketone; Propanone.

              c.   Potential Hazards:  VOLATILE AND FLAMMABLE
                   SOLVENT.

              d.   Available from chemical supply house or
                   hardware store.

         2.   Amyl Acetate:

              a.   Other chemical or common names include Amyl
                   acetic ester; 1-pentanol acetate; Banana oil*;
                   Pear oil*.

              b.   Potential Hazards:  FLAMMABLE.

              c.   Available from chemical supply house,
                   drugstore or pharmaceutical supply
                   distributor, paint store or photographic
                   supply distributor (not camera shop).

         3.   Trichloroethylene (highly refined solvent):

              CAUTION:  TRICHLOROETHYLENE IS HIGHLY TOXIC AND MAY
              REACT WITH STRONG ALKALIS SUCH AS FRESH CONCRETE TO
              FORM DANGEROUS GASES.

              a.   Other chemical or common names include Ethinyl
                   trichloride.

              b.   Potential Hazards:  TOXIC.

              c.   Available from automotive supply distributor,
                   chemical supply house (both commercial and
                   scientific), dry cleaning supply distributor,
                   paint store, photographic supply distributor
                   (not camera shop), or printer's supply
                   distributor.

    C.   Filler material such as diatomaceous earth, fuller's
         earth, talc, fly ash, cornmeal, cornstarch or cat litter

    D.   Mineral water

    E.   Plastic sheeting

    F.   Clean dry towels for blotting the area after treatment

    G.   Masking tape

    H.   Clean, potable water

    I.   Accessible source of water, soap and towels for washing
         and rinsing in case of emergencies associated with the
         use of chemicals

    J.   Small slab of concrete or pane of glass

2.03 EQUIPMENT

    A.   Glass or ceramic container for mixing the solution

    B.   Wooden utensil for stirring the ingredients

    C.   Wood or plastic spatula

    D.   Stiff bristle brush (non-metallic)


PART 3---EXECUTION

3.01 PREPARATION

    A.   Protection:

         1.   Provide adequate wash solutions (i.e. water, soap
              and towels) before starting the job.

         2.   Whenever acid is used, the surface should be
              thoroughly rinsed with water as soon as its action
              has been adequate.  Otherwise it will continue
              etching the concrete even though the stain is gone.

3.02 ERECTION, INSTALLATION, APPLICATION

    NOTE:  DO NOT TRY MORE THAN ONE TREATMENT ON A GIVEN AREA
    UNLESS THE CHEMICALS USED FROM PRIOR TREATMENT HAVE BEEN
    WASHED AWAY.

    A.   Blot excess oil with clean dry cloths.

    B.   Apply one of the dry powdered materials listed in Section
         2.01 to the stained area.

    C.   Leave it in place for about a day and sweep up or brush
         off.  

    D.   Reapply as necessary to absorb as much of the oil as
         possible.

    E.   Scrape off any solidified oil or scum using a wooden
         scraper.

    F.   If there is still oil visible within the concrete, scrub
         with one of the following:  Scouring powder, strong soap
         solution, sodium orthophosphate solution, proprietary
         engine degreaser, or one of the proprietary detergents
         designed for removing oil from concrete.

    G.   Thoroughly rinse with clean, clear water and allow to
         dry.

    H.   For heavy staining, try one of the following methods:

         1.   Method 1:

              a.   Mix 1 pound 6 ounces of sodium orthophosphate
                   in 1 gallon of water, or 7 ounces sodium
                   hydroxide in 1 gallon of water.

              b.   Add enough whiting to the solution to make a
                   thick paste.  

              c.   Thoroughly wet the concrete with clean, clear
                   water.

              d.   Spread the poultice over the stain using a
                   wood or plastic spatula and allow to dry about
                   24 hours.  Be sure to spread the poultice well
                   beyond the stained area.  The liquid portion
                   of the paste will migrates into the concrete
                   where it will dissolve some of the staining
                   material.  Then the liquid will gradually move
                   back beyond the concrete surface and into the
                   poultice, where it will evaporate, leaving the
                   dissolved staining material in the poultice.

              e.   Brush off the dried paste and scrub the
                   concrete with clean, clear water.

              f.   Using a stiff bristle brush, scrub the surface
                   with scouring powder and clean water to remove
                   any residual staining.

              g.   Thoroughly rinse the area with clean, clear
                   water and allow to dry.

              h.   Repeat the process as necessary to
                   sufficiently remove the stain.

         -OR-

         2.   Method 2 (USE ONLY WITH GOOD VENTILATION):

              a.   Mix mineral spirits with filler material to
                   make a thick paste the consistency of oatmeal.
              b.    Follow procedures 3.02 H.1.c-h. above.

         -OR-

         3.   Method 3 (USE ONLY WITH GOOD VENTILATION):

              a.   Mix 1 part acetone and 1 part amyl acetate in
                   a glass or ceramic bowl.

              b.   Saturate a white cloth in this solution
                   (above) or in trichloroethylene.

              c.   Apply the saturated bandage to the stained
                   area, extending it well beyond the boundaries
                   of the stain.

              d.   Dry-heat a slab of concrete and lay it over
                   the bandage.  The heat is intended to draw the
                   oil out of the slab, through the bandage and
                   into the concrete slab.

                   NOTE:  TO AVOID THE DANGER OF APPROACHING THE
                   FLASH POINT, DO NOT WARM THE SLAB TO A
                   TEMPERATURE GREATER THAN YOU CAN COMFORTABLY
                   HOLD IN YOUR HANDS.

              -OR-

                   Use a heated glass pane instead of a concrete
                   slab.  The glass will NOT absorb the oil, but
                   drive the oil deeper into the concrete where
                   it will not show.

              e.   Add more liquid to the bandage occasionally.
                   Note:  If the oil spreads beyond the edges of
                   the bandage, the bandage is not big enough.

         4.   Method For Driveways and Parking Lots:  The above
              methods should be adequate, but since these
              surfaces may be large and offer no problem with
              ventilation, the following method may be more
              effective:

              a.   Saturate the area (plus about 6 inches more
                   beyond the stained edges) with mineral
                   spirits.

              b.   Cover the area with one of the absorbent
                   powdered materials listed above such as
                   fuller's earth, talc, cornmeal, cornstarch or
                   cat litter.

              c.   Leave it in place for about 24 hours.

              d.   Brush or sweep the absorbent material away and
                   repeat if necessary.

                         END OF SECTION