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Historic Preservation - Technical Procedures

Spectitle:

Checklist For Inspecting Stone Masonry Failures

Procedure code:

0440001S

Source:

Outdoor Sculpture Manual - Center For Public Buildings

Division:

Masonry

Section:

Stonework

Last Modified:

06/12/2012

Details:

Checklist For Inspecting Stone Masonry Failures



CHECKLIST FOR INSPECTING STONE MASONRY FAILURES


This general checklist is an aid for inspecting the condition of
stone.  It should be used as a supplement to the following:  

04455-01-S, "Marble: Characteristics, Uses and Problems"
04465-01-S, "Granite: Characteristics, Uses and Problems"
04460-01-S, "Limestone: Characteristics, Uses and Problems"


NOTE:  THE PRESENCE OF ANY OR SEVERAL OF THE CONDITIONS LISTED IN
THE FOLLOWING CHECKLIST IS AN INDICATION OF STONE PROBLEMS.  AN
EXPERIENCED CONSERVATOR OR MASONRY EXPERT MAY BE NEEDED TO
DIAGNOSE ACTUAL CAUSES OF THE PROBLEMS AND SELECT OR PLAN AN
APPROPRIATE COURSE OF ACTION.

Assessments should address each type of stone present if multiple
types exist.

1.   Identify the stone type.

2.   Examine the overall surface condition and appearance
    considering elevation/exposure factors.

    a.   Note any staining.

         1)   Note nature and color of staining (i.e. orange
              stains, green stains, etc.)

         2)   Note extent and location of staining or crusting
              from oxidations.

    b.   Inspect structural soundness of the stone.  Note extent
         and location of:

         1)   Cracks

         2)   Settling

         3)   Block Movement

         4)   Pointing failure

         5)   Repairs

         6)   Moisture

    c.   Examine the condition of caulking.  Note nature, location
         and extent of:

         1)   Flaking

         2)   Powdering

         3)   Leaking

         4)   Distortion

         5)   Failure/absence

         6)   Cracks

    d.   Examine the condition of coatings.  Note nature and
         location of any surface coatings.  Look for:

         1)   Pigment residue

         2)   Reservoir appearance

         3)   Partial erosion

         4)   Cracks and crazing of coating

         5)   Cloudiness

         6)   Gilding

    e.   Note the location and condition of areas where water
         collects and ponds.  Look for:

         1)   Standing water

         2)   Streaking

         3)   Pockets and perforations

    f.   Note any loss of finish surface as evidenced by flaking
         or peeling.

         1)   Peeling and flaking usually follow uncorrected
              efflorescence or sub-florescence and represent a
              more advanced stage of failure.

         2)   It is likely that some degree of rust or corrosion
              will be evident in areas left unprotected as a
              result of coatings loss through flaking.

         3)   Note extent and location of peeling and/or flaking.

         4)   Is it localized or general?

    g.   Note any areas showing signs of erosion and/or wear.

         1)   Note nature and location of any wear or erosion.

              a)   Distinguish between erosion caused by
                   environmental factors and normal exposure,
                   versus that caused by human factors such as
                   touching or vandalism.

              b)   Carefully monitor and record all noted areas
                   of erosion and wear, and notes on the location
                   of eroded areas will aid in planning for the
                   protection of the stone.

    h.   Note the presence of graffiti.

         1)   Identify the type of material used, such as paint,
              grease, lipstick, marker, scratches, etc.

         2)   Note the general pattern and area of graffiti.

    i.   Note any structural and/or mechanical problems.

         1)   Examine surfaces for evidence of movement, cracks
              and breaks in the surface.  Look for:

              a)   Hairline cracks/Crevices.  Are they active?

              b)   Structural Cracks.  Are they active?  Many
                   need monitoring (see 04200-02-S "Monitoring
                   and Evaluating Cracks in Masonry")

              c)   Broken and/or missing pieces.

         2)   Damaged joints.

                         END OF SECTION
 


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