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Historic Preservation - Technical Procedures

Spectitle:

Removing Ink Stains From Terrazzo Floors

Procedure code:

0940001R

Source:

Developed For Hspg (Nps - Sero)

Division:

Finishes

Section:

Terrazzo

Last Modified:

02/24/2012

Details:

Removing Ink Stains From Terrazzo Floors



REMOVING INK STAINS FROM TERRAZZO FLOORS


PART 1---GENERAL

1.01 SUMMARY

    A.   This procedure includes guidance on removing ink stains
         from terrazzo floors.

    B.   See 01100-07-S for general project guidelines to be
         reviewed along with this procedure.  These guidelines
         cover the following sections:

         1.   Safety Precautions

         2.   Historic Structures Precautions

         3.   Submittals

         4.   Quality Assurance

         5.   Delivery, Storage and Handling

         6.   Project/Site Conditions

         7.   Sequencing and Scheduling

         8.   General Protection (Surface and Surrounding)

         These guidelines should be reviewed prior to performing
         this procedure and should be followed, when applicable,
         along with recommendations from the Regional Historic
         Preservation Officer (RHPO).

    C.   For general information on the characteristics and
         maintenance of terrazzo, see 09400-01-P.


PART 2---PRODUCTS

2.01 MATERIALS

    NOTE:  Chemical products are sometimes sold under a common
    name.  This usually means that the substance is not as pure as
    the same chemical sold under its chemical name.  The grade of
    purity of common name substances, however, is usually adequate
    for stain removal work, and these products should be purchased
    when available, as they tend to be less expensive.  Common
    names are indicated below by an asterisk (*).

    A.   For Ordinary Ink Stains:

         1.   Sodium Perborate:

              a.   Other chemical or common names include
                   Perborax*.

              b.   Potential Hazards:  TOXIC AND FLAMMABLE (WHEN
                   IN CONTACT WITH ORGANIC SOLVENTS).

              c.   Available from chemical supply house,
                   drugstore or pharmaceutical supply
                   distributor, grocery store or supermarket.

         2.   Hot water

         3.   Whiting:

              a.   Other chemical or common names include
                   Powdered chalk.  Kitchen flour may also be
                   substituted.

              b.   Available from paint store.

    B.   For Bright-Colored Ink Stains:

         1.   Ammonia water:

              CAUTION:  DO NOT MIX AMMONIA WITH CHLORINE
              BLEACHES, A POISONOUS GAS WILL RESULT!  DO NOT USE
              BLEACH ON BIRD DROPPINGS.

              a.   A weakly basic compound that is formed when
                   ammonia dissolves in water and that exists
                   only in solution.

              b.   Other chemical or common names include
                   Ammonium Hydroxide; Aqua ammonia*; Household
                   ammonia*.

              c.   Potential hazards:  TOXIC; MAY IRRITATE THE
                   EYES.

              d.   Available from chemical supply house, grocery
                   store or pharmaceutical supply distributor, or
                   hardware store.

         2.   Cotton batting

         3.   Javelle water (Made by user). See 03710-02-S for
              materials, equipment and procedures for preparing
              Javelle Water.

    C.   For Blue Ink and Indelible Ink Stains:  

         1.   Ammonia water (see Section 2.01 B.1. above)

         2.   Cotton batting or cotton gauze

2.02 EQUIPMENT

    A.   Wooden Paddle or Trowel

    B.   Stoneware Jar

    C.   Shallow Enameled Pan

    D.   Electric or battery powered scrubbing machines


PART 3---EXECUTION

3.01 EXAMINATION

    A.   Examine the terrazzo surface carefully to determine the
         cause of staining before proceeding with any cleaning
         operation.

3.02 ERECTION, INSTALLATION, APPLICATION

    NOTE:  THE FOLLOWING TREATMENTS SHOULD BE USED BY TRAINED AND
    EXPERIENCED PERSONNEL.  IMPROPER USE MAY RESULT IN BLEACHING
    THE TERRAZZO MATRIX, IF A COLOR DYE WAS ADDED AT THE TIME OF
    INSTALLATION.

    A.   For Ordinary Writing Inks:

         1.   Make a strong solution of sodium perborate in hot
              water and mix with whiting to form a thick paste.

         2.   Thoroughly wet the surface to be treated with
              clean, clear water.

         3.   Apply the mixture to the stained area in a 1/4 inch
              thick layer using a wood or plastic spatula and
              allow to dry.  Be sure to spread the poultice well
              beyond the stained area.  The liquid portion of the
              paste will migrate into the masonry where it will
              dissolve some of the staining material.  Then the
              liquid will gradually move back beyond the masonry
              surface and into the poultice, where it will
              evaporate, leaving the dissolved staining material
              in the poultice.

         4.   When the poultice has dried, brush or scrape it off
              with a wooden scraper.  

         5.   Using a stiff bristle brush, scrub the surface with
              scouring powder and clean water to remove any
              residual staining.

         6.   Thoroughly rinse the area with clean, clear water
              and blot dry with clean towels.

    B.   For Bright-colored Inks:

         1.   Use a sodium perborate poultice as described in
              Section 3.02 A. above.

         -OR-

              Saturate cotton batting in ammonia water.  

         -OR-

              Saturate cotton batting in javelle water (see
              03710-02-S for procedures on preparing Javelle
              Water) and mix with whiting to form a thick paste.
             
         -OR-

              Mix equal parts of chlorinated lime and whiting
              reduced to a paste with water.

         2.   Follow poultice preparation and application
              procedures described above in Section 3.02 A.2-7.
              Repeat the treatment as necessary to achieve the
              desired level of cleanliness.

    C.   For Blue Inks:  Some blue ink stains cannot be removed by
         the perborate poultice, Javelle water, or chlorinated
         lime poultice.

         1.   Saturate cotton batting in ammonia water.

              -OR-

              Use a strong soap solution in place of ammonia
              water.

         2.   Follow poultice preparation and application
              procedures described above in Section 3.02 A.2-7.
              Repeat the treatment as necessary to achieve the
              desired level of cleanliness.

    D.   For Indelible Inks:

         1.   Treat the same as blue ink stains.

         2.   For more difficult stains such as inks containing
              silver salts (causing a black stain), saturate
              ammonia water in cotton gauze.

         3.   Follow poultice preparation and application
              procedures described above in Section 3.02 A.2-7.
              Repeat the treatment as necessary to achieve the
              desired level of cleanliness.

                             END OF SECTION