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Historic Preservation - Technical Procedures

Spectitle:

Refinishing Interior Wood

Procedure code:

0640010R

Source:

Maintenance, Rpr & Alteration Of Hstrc Bldgs - Gsa/Pbs, 1981

Division:

Wood And Plastics

Section:

Architectural Woodwork

Last Modified:

02/24/2012

Details:

Refinishing Interior Wood



REFINISHING INTERIOR WOOD


BEFORE UNDERTAKING ANY PROJECT INVOLVING PAINT REMOVAL, APPLICABLE
STATE AND FEDERAL LAWS ON LEAD PAINT ABATEMENT AND DISPOSAL MUST
BE CONSIDERED AND CAREFULLY FOLLOWED.  STATE AND FEDERAL
REQUIREMENTS MAY AFFECT OPTIONS AVAILABLE TO OWNERS ON BOTH PAINT
REMOVAL AND REPAINTING.  THESE LAWS, and ANY REQUIREMENTS
PROHIBITING VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS (VOCs), SHOULD BE REQUESTED
FROM THE STATE HISTORIC PRESERVATION OFFICER IN EACH STATE.  (From
Preservation Brief 28, "Painting Historic Interiors").  REGULATORY INFORMATION
MAY ALSO BE REQUESTED FROM THE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
(EPA) REGIONAL OFFICE AND/OR THE STATE OFFICE OF ENVIRONMENTAL
QUALITY.


PART 1---GENERAL

1.01 SUMMARY

    A.   This procedure includes guidance on removing an existing
         wood finish and refinishing with a stain, varnish or wax.

    B.   Safety Precautions:

         1.   Dispose of all used solutions, paint stripper
              residue and soiled rags in sealed non-combustible
              containers daily to prevent fire hazard.

         2.   The Contractor shall maintain a healthy level of
              air circulation within the space being treated.
              Exhaust fans or other air moving devices shall be
              regularly employed and maintained to the
              satisfaction of the Contracting Officer or
              designated representative.

         3.   Areas being treated shall be curtained off from
              other trades or occupants to prevent fumes from
              reaching other parts of the building.

         4.   All workers in the area being treated shall wear
              appropriate safety devices, including but not
              limited to, respirators fitted with the correct
              cartridge, gloves, other clothing.

    C.   See 01100-07-S for general project guidelines to be
         reviewed along with this procedure. These guidelines
         cover the following sections:

         1.   Safety Precautions

         2.   Historic Structures Precautions

         3.   Submittals

         4.   Quality Assurance

         5.   Delivery, Storage and Handling

         6.   Project/Site Conditions

         7.   Sequencing and Scheduling

         8.   General Protection (Surface and Surrounding)

         These guidelines should be reviewed prior to performing
         this procedure and should be followed, when applicable,
         along with recommendations from the Regional Historic
         Preservation Officer (RHPO).  

1.02 SUBMITTALS

    A.   Samples:

         1.   The Contractor shall refinish two (2) sample areas
              for approval by the Contracting Officer or
              designated representative. Locations of sample
              areas shall be as selected by the Contracting
              Officer or designated representative.

         2.   The Contractor shall obtain written approval from
              the Contracting Officer or designated
              representative of wood refinishing methods,
              materials, and sample panels before proceeding with
              the work of this section. Approved sample panels
              shall be marked and protected for the duration of
              the project. They shall be used as the standard for
              similar work throughout the project.

         3.   In the case of rejection of the sample areas, these
              locations shall be re-stripped and refinished until
              approved by the Contracting Officer or designated
              representative.

1.03 QUALITY ASSURANCE

    A.   General Objective: The objectives of wood refinishing and
         cleaning are to give wood surfaces a smooth, uniform
         appearance consistent with the original design intent,
         and to preserve the inherent patina. Splotches, streaks,
         runs, or any other kind of spotty appearance shall not be
         accepted. Too aggressive cleaning or sanding shall not be
         accepted.

    B.   Work Standards: Basic reference and standard for wood
         refinishing shall be "Wood Finishing and Refinishing
         Revised Edition," by S.W. Gibbia, New York: Van Nostrand
         Reinhold Co., 1971.

    C.   Contractor: A firm with not less than five (5) years in
         wood refinishing and restoration. The Contractor shall be
         required to submit reference for six (6) other projects
         of similar nature. The Contracting Officer or designated
         representative reserves the right to approve or
         disapprove the use of the Contractor contingent upon
         their experience.

    D.   Refinish Standard: Sample areas shall be prepared which
         shall form a standard for wood refinishing.

    E.   Refinishing is defined as all the process(es) necessary
         to restore woodwork. Stripping is defined as the process
         of removing existing coatings from woodwork without
         damage to the wood. Finishing is defined as the process
         of applying stain and protective coating and all related
         preparatory and follow-up tasks. Cleaning is defined as
         the removal of dirt embedded in the upper finish layers
         and does not include the removal of any finish layer.

    F.   Single Source Responsibility: Provide compatible finish
         coating, thinner, sanding sealer, and wood filler that
         are produced by the same manufacturer.

    G.   Regulatory Requirements: Comply with municipal and
         Federal regulations governing the refinishing operations,
         chemical waste disposal, and scaffolding.


PART 2---PRODUCTS

2.01 MANUFACTURERS

    A.   Bonakemi USA, Inc.
         14805 East Moncrieff Place
         Aurora, CO  80011
         800/872-5515 or 303/371-1411

    B.   Butcher Polish Company
         120 Bartlett Street
         Marlborough, MA
         617/481-5700

    C.   3M Consumer Products Group
         Box 33053
         St. Paul, MN  55133-3053
         612/737-6501 or 800/364-3577

    D.   The Sherwin Williams Co.
         101 Prospect Ave. NW
         Cleveland, OH  44101
         216/566-2000

    E.   Specialty Environmental Technologies, Inc.
         4520 Glenmeade Lane
         Auburn Hills, MI  48326
         810/340-0400

2.02 MATERIALS

    NOTE:  Chemical products are sometimes sold under a common
    name.  This usually means that the substance is not as pure as
    the same chemical sold under its chemical name.  The grade of
    purity of common name substances, however, is usually adequate
    for stain removal work, and these products should be purchased
    when available, as they may be less expensive.  Common names
    are shown below by an asterisk (*).

    A.   Commercial Paint and Varnish Remover such as "Citristrip"
         (Specialties Environmental Technologies, Inc.), "Safest
         Stripper" (3M), or approved equal

    B.   Mineral Spirits:

         1.   A petroleum distillate that is used especially as
              paint or varnish thinner.

         2.   Other chemical or common names include Benzine* (not
              Benzene); Naphtha*; Petroleum spirits*; Solvent
              naphtha*.

         3.   Potential Hazards:  TOXIC AND FLAMMABLE.

         4.   Safety Precautions:

              a.   AVOID REPEATED OR PROLONGED SKIN CONTACT.

              b.   ALWAYS wear rubber gloves when handling
                   mineral spirits.

              c.   If any chemical is splashed onto the skin,
                   wash immediately with soap and water.

         5.   Available from construction specialties'
              distributor, hardware store, paint store, or
              printer's supply distributor.

         -OR-

         Turpentine:

         1.   Typically used as a solvent and thinner.

         2.   Potential Hazards:  TOXIC AND FLAMMABLE.

         3.   Safety Precautions:

              a.   Work in a well ventilated area.  

              b.   Observe safety rules as turpentine is
                   flammable, and the fumes can trip an
                   ionization smoke detection system.  

              c.   Store soiled cloths in a metal safety
                   container to guard against spontaneous
                   combustion.

         4.   Available from hardware store or paint store.

         -OR-

         Solvent Wax Remover such as "Woodline Renovator"
         (Bonakemi USA, Inc.), or approved equal.

    C.   Wood filler in color to match original stain.

         CAUTION:  WOOD FILLERS CONTAINING A LINSEED OIL VEHICLE
         MAY CAUSE WHITE SPOTS TO DEVELOP IN THE LACQUER FINISH
         COAT.

    D.   Oil stain or universal stain (Sherwin Williams), or
         approved equal.

    E.   Alkyd or urethane-base satin varnish (Sherwin Williams),
         or approved equal.

    F.   Paste wax (non-yellowing) such as "Butcher's Paste Wax"
         (Butcher Polish Company), or approved equal.

2.03 EQUIPMENT

    A.   000 steel wool

    B.   Steel or brass wire brushes

    C.   Stiff fiber bristle brushes

    D.   Putty knife or broad knife

    E.   Clean, dry cloths (cheese cloth or gauze)

    F.   Orbital Sander

    G.   Electric floor polisher

    H.   Nylon web scrubbing pads

    I.   Lamb's wool buffing pads


PART 3---EXECUTION

3.01 ERECTION, INSTALLATION, APPLICATION

    A.   Remove Existing Coating:

         1.   Work in areas approximately 4' by 4' at one time.

         2.   Apply chemical stripper using a brush or roller.
              Follow manufacturer's instructions.

         3.   Allow stripper to stand for length of time as
              recommended by manufacturer, depending upon the
              number of surface layers to be stripped; if
              necessary, cover with plastic sheeting to keep the
              stripper moist.

         4.   Using a broad knife or scrapper, remove paint and
              stripper from the surface.

         5.   Safely dispose of paint and stripper residue.
              Follow EPA regulations for disposal of lead-base
              paint.

         6.   Specifically for varnish buildup:  

              a.   Wet steel wool with solvent and rub over the
                   wood surface to remove varnish buildup and to
                   smooth out any checks in the surface.  

              b.   Replace steel wool frequently with clean, and
                   continue the wiping process until a smooth
                   surface is achieved.  

                   NOTE:  DO NOT USE WATER ON THE WOOD SURFACE.

         7.   Wipe wood with a clean cloth soaked in mineral
              spirits to remove chemical residue.

         8.   Allow to dry and dry-brush loose material from the
              surface using a short fiber bristle brush.

         9.   Repeat as necessary to sufficiently remove the
              previous coating.

         NOTE:  For more detailed information on paint removal
         from wood, see 06400-07-R, 06400-02-S and 06400-09-R.

         10.  Special Procedures for Varnished Wood Floors:

              a.   Sand the floor with an orbital sander to
                   remove stains, old finish and indentations in
                   the wood.  Sand in direction of wood grain.

                   NOTE:  DO NOT REMOVE MORE THAN 1/16" OF THE
                   WOOD SURFACE.

              b.   Remove dust from floor with vacuum and tack
                   cloth.

         11.  Special Procedures for Waxed Wood Floors:

              NOTE:  Some sophisticated modern waxes, formulated
              for long wear and for high production commercial
              use, require special strippers that most often are
              not appropriate for historic materials because the
              ingredients cannot be readily detected.  Some
              silicon waxes can only be removed by abrasion.

              NOTE:  WORK IN A WELL-VENTILATED ROOM.  OBSERVE
              SAFETY RULES AS BOTH THE TURPENTINE AND THE WAX ARE
              FLAMMABLE, AND THE FUMES CAN TRIP AN IONIZATION
              SMOKE DETECTION SYSTEM.  STORE SOILED CLOTHS IN A
              METAL SAFETY CONTAINER TO GUARD AGAINST SPONTANEOUS
              COMBUSTION.

              a.   Dampen small area of floor with turpentine or
                   mineral spirits, or apply wax remover evenly
                   over the floor following manufacturer's
                   instructions.

              b.   Using a 16" electric floor machine, scrub
                   lightly with a piece of 000 steel wool or
                   nylon web scrubbing pad.  Change steel wool or
                   pads as they become clogged with old wax.  

              c.   Wipe up solvent and wax with clean cloths.

              d.   Continue cleaning in this manner until all of
                   the old wax has been removed.  Allow floor to
                   dry, approximately 15-20 minutes after the
                   last area has been cleaned.

              e.   Apply wax and buff as described 06200-01-P.
                   Apply two or more thin coats rather than one
                   thick coat.  Buff after each coat.

    B.   Fill scratches, gouges and dents with wood filler.  See
         06440-04-R for guidance.  

    C.   Apply a high quality paste wood filler with a brush to
         all open grain wood species (i.e., Oak) before staining.

         1.   Dampen a clean cloth with mineral spirits and wipe
              the paste off across the grain of the wood to
              enable the filler to remain in the grain
              depressions.

         2.   Allow the filler to fully dry before applying the
              stain or varnish.

    D.   Stain and Varnish the Wood:

         1.   On a SAMPLE area 12 inches square, brush apply oil
              stain or universal stain.

         2.   Allow the stain to penetrate the wood for at least
              5-10 minutes.

         3.   Remove excess stain with a clean, lint-free cloth.
              Rub the wood parallel to the grain.

         4.   Allow the stain to dry at least 12 hours before
              applying varnish.

         5.   Brush apply one coat of alkyd or urethane-base
              satin varnish.  Varnish should be thin, but not
              watery.

         6.   Allow to dry for at least 24 hours.

         7.   When dry, buff the surface with 000 steel wool and
              dry-brush with a fiber bristle brush to remove any
              metal particles left behind from the steel wool.  A
              tack rag may also be used to remove dust from the
              surface.

         8.   Apply second coat of satin varnish (full-strength).

         9.   Allow to fully dry.

         10.  Buff the surface with 000 steel wool and dry-brush
              with a fiber bristle brush to remove any metal
              particles left behind from the steel wool.

         11.  If sample is approved by RHPO, follow the same
              procedures for all remaining wood.

         12.  For areas subject to wear (i.e., handrails,
              wainscot, etc.):

              a.   After buffing the final coat of varnish, apply
                   one coat of non-yellowing paste wax.  See
                   06400-01-P for guidance.

                         END OF SECTION