Historic Preservation - Technical Procedures
Replacing Damaged Encaustic Floor Tiles
Us Custom House/Po/St. Louis, Mo - Gsa/Pbs, 10-15-79
Replacing Damaged Encaustic Floor Tiles
REPLACING DAMAGED ENCAUSTIC FLOOR TILES
A. This procedure includes guidance on removing and
replacing damaged or deteriorated encaustic floor tiles.
Replacement may involve using tile salvaged from other
locations or reproducing tile to match the existing tile.
B. For additional information on the characteristics, uses
and the production/reproduction process of encaustic
tiles, see 09310-02-S.
C. See 01100-07-S for general project guidelines to be used
along with this procedure. These guidelines cover the
1. Historic Structures Precautions
3. Quality Assurance
4. Delivery, Storage and Handling
5. Project/Site Conditions
6. Sequencing and Scheduling
7. General Protection (Surface and Surrounding)
These guidelines should be reviewed prior to performing
this procedure and should be followed along with
recommendations from the Regional Historic Preservation
A. The Tile Council of America, Inc. (TCA), P.O. Box 326,
Princeton, NJ 08542-0326, 609/921-7050, FAX 609/452-
B. American National Standards Institute, Inc. (ANSI), 1430
Broadway, New York, NY 10018.
1.03 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION
A. Performance Requirements: Completed encaustic tile
installation to be within tolerances as follows:
1. Variation from a true plane not to exceed 3/16" in
10'-0", any direction, but not more than 3/8" for
2. Variation in offset of edge-to-edge alignment of
adjoining tile not to exceed 1/32".
A. Product Data: Submit manufacturer's technical
information and installation instructions for all
materials required, except bulk materials. Include
certifications and other data as may be required to show
compliance with this specification.
1.05 QUALITY ASSURANCE
A. Manufacturing Standards:
1. When using setting and grouting materials
manufactured under TCA license, include
identification and formula number on each
2. Provide materials obtained from only one source for
each type to minimize variations in appearance and
B. Mock-Ups: A representative sample area as indicated of
100 square feet will be restored. Obtain acceptance of
the sample area before proceeding with the remainder of
the restoration. Maintain sample area in its accepted
condition until acceptance of completed work.
1.06 DELIVERY, STORAGE AND HANDLING
A. Packing and Shipping: Deliver packaged materials and
store in original containers with seals unbroken and
labels intact until time of use, in accord with
directions of manufacturer.
1.07 PROJECT/SITE CONDITIONS
A. Environmental Requirements: Maintain a temperature of
not less than 50 degrees F. during tile installation and
for 7 days after completion.
A. Tile: Encaustic tile to match existing in color, shape
and size. Existing tile from other areas of the building
may be used after cleaning and evaluaton for soundness
B. Mortar and Grout:
1. Latex-Portland Cement Mortar: Latex modified
portland cement thin-set mortar complying with ANSI
2. Latex-Portland Cement Grout: Proprietary compound
composed of portland cement with latex additive for
a more flexible and less permeable grout. Color to
match existing grout.
3. Epoxy Patch Compound: Two component resin and
hardener complying with ANSI A118.3. Colors to
match existing tiles.
4. Epoxy Mortar: Two-component epoxy resin and
hardener; ANSI A118.3.
5. Water: Clean and free of deleterious materials
which would impair strength, bond or appearance.
A. Examine the substrate and the conditions under which tile
is to be installed. Do not proceed with the work until
unsatisfactory conditions have been corrected, which
includes a level and even bedding for new work.
A. Surface Preparation:
1. Areas of existing tile indicated to be removed and
reused shall be carefully loosened from the
substrate, cleaned and stored for use as
2. Cracked, crumbled or shattered tile shall be
carefully removed in such a manner so as not to
damage in any way nor to dislocated any adjacent
3. Pitted tile shall be carefully repaired with epoxy
patch compound to produce a smooth even surface and
to completely fill existing surface voids.
3.03 ERECTION, INSTALLATION, APPLICATION
A. Before installing new tile, carefully examine exposed
1. If substrate is found to be solid and a sound
surface for new work, install new tile with epoxy
2. If substrate is NOT found to provide a sound
surface for the new work, provide applicable tile
installation method for substrate and performance
as described below and complying with TCA "Handbook
for Ceramic Tile Installation".
B. Install New Tiles:
NOTE: COMPLY WITH APPLICABLE ANSI STANDARD INSTALLATION
1. Use a Latex-Portland Cement Mortar: Latex modified
portland cement thin-set mortar; ANSI A118.4.
2. Joint Pattern: Unless otherwise indicated, lay
tile in exact configuration as the removed tile.
Align joints and provide uniform joint widths.
3. Colors and Existing Pattern: When new replacement
tile or tiles are installed, the colors and
locations of the tiles must exactly duplicate and
match the removed original(s).
4. Coverage: Extend tile work into recesses and under
equipment and fixtures, to form a complete covering
without interruptions, except as otherwise
indicated. Terminate work neatly at obstructions,
edges and corners without disruption of pattern or
joint alignment, and use applicable trim and
special shapes as required.
5. Fitting: Accurately form intersections and
returns, and use applicable special shapes as
required. Perform cutting of tile without marring
visible surfaces. Carefully grind cut edges of
tile abutting trim, finish or built-in items for
straight, aligned joints. Fit tile closely to
electrical outlets, piping and fixtures so that
plates, collars or covers overlap tile.
6. Setting Beds: Provide applicable setting bed types
as required. Handle and apply proprietary mortar
materials complying with instructions of the
7. Setting Tile: Set encaustic tile in place, and
tamp level and even with adjacent tile and within
required tolerances. Use appropriate spacers to
obtain a straight and uniform joint.
8. Grouting: Provide applicable grout types as
required. Handle and apply grout complying with
instructions of manufacturer. Start grouting after
the setting bed mortar has cured and tiles are
firm and secure in-place.
A. Clean grout and setting materials from face of tile while
materials are workable. Leave tile face clean and free
of all foreign matter. DO NOT USE ACID OR CAUSTIC
MATERIALS TO CLEAN TILE.
B. Leave restored areas clean and free of cracked, chipped,
broken, unbonded or otherwise defective tile.
A. Install a protective covering to protect the floor during
the construction period.
B. Prohibit all foot and wheel traffic from using tiled
floors for at least 3 days, preferably 7 days.
C. Before final inspection, remove protective covering clean
and rinse all tile surfaces. Wash tile surfaces clean.
END OF SECTION