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Historic Preservation - Technical Procedures
Replacing Cracked Ceramic Floor Tile
National Capitol Region Specifications - Switzer Building
Ceramic Tile Floor Finish
Replacing Cracked Ceramic Floor Tile
REPLACING CRACKED CERAMIC FLOOR TILE
A. This procedure includes guidance on replacing cracked,
broken, worn or poorly color matched replacement tiles
with new to match original.
B. Safety Precautions:
1. Comply with municipal and Federal regulations
governing the cleaning, chemical waste disposal,
scaffolding protection to adjacent properties and
2. Refer to Federal Government Specification Section
01546, Health and Safety, and comply with all the
C. See 01100-07-S for general project guidelines to be
reviewed along with this procedure. These guidelines
cover the following sections:
1. Safety Precautions
2. Historic Structures Precautions
4. Quality Assurance
5. Delivery, Storage and Handling
6. Project/Site Conditions
7. Sequencing and Scheduling
8. General Protection (Surface and Surrounding)
These guidelines should be reviewed prior to performing
this procedure and should be followed, when applicable,
along with recommendations from the Regional Historic
Preservation Officer (RHPO).
A. American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), 100
Barr Drive, West Conshohocken, PA 19428, (610) 832-9585
or FAX (610) 832-9555.
1. ASTM C 503-88 -- Standard Specification for Marble
Building Stone (Exterior); most recent version.
2. ASTM C 920-87 -- Standard Specification for
Elastomeric Joint Sealants; most recent version.
3. ASTM E 119-88 -- Standard Test Methods for Fire
Tests of Building Construction and Materials; most
B. American National Standards Institute, Inc. (ANSI), 1430
Broadway, New York, NY 10018.
1. ANSI A108.4-1985 -- Installation of Ceramic Tile
with Organic Adhesives or Water Cleanable Tile
Setting Epoxy Adhesives; most recent version.
2. ANSI A108.5-1985 -- Installation of Ceramic Tile
with Dry-Set Portland Cement Mortar or Latex-
Portland Cement Mortar; most recent version.
3. ANSI A108.10-1985 -- Installation of Grout in
Tilework; most recent version.
4. ANSI A118.1-1985 -- American National Standard
Specifications for Dry-Set Portland Cement Mortar;
most recent version.
5. ANSI A118.3-1985 -- American National Standard
Specifications for Chemical Resistant, Water
Cleanable Tile Setting and Grouting Epoxy and Water
Cleanable Tile Setting Epoxy Adhesive; most recent
6. ANSI A118.6-1985 -- American National Standard
Specifications for Ceramic Tile Grouts; most recent
C. Tile Council of America, Inc. (TCA), P.O. Box 326,
Princeton, NJ 08540
1. Handbook for Ceramic Tile Installation; most recent
A. Product Data: Manufacturer's technical information and
installation instructions for materials required, except
B. Samples for Initial Selection Purposes: Manufacturer's
color charts consisting of actual tiles or sections of
tile showing full range of colors, textures and patterns
available for each type of tile indicated. Include
samples of grout and accessories involving color
C. Samples for Verification Purposes: Submit the following.
1. Samples for each type of tile and for each color
and texture required, not less than 12 inches
square, on plywood or hardboard backing and
2. Full-size samples for each type of trim and
accessory and for each color.
3. Six inch long samples of stone thresholds.
D. Control Sample Panels:
1. The Contractor shall clean a 4'-0" by 4'-0" bay of
the existing ceramic floor tile on each different
color for review by the Contracting Officer's
representative. Locations of sample floor bays to
be selected by the Contracting Officer's
representative. These cleaned ceramic floor tile
bays are to be protected by the Contractor and will
be used for matching replacement ceramic floor
2. The Contractor shall prepare a sample bay,
approximately 2'-0" by 2'-0" of replaced ceramic
floor tile. The sample bay should be made to match
the existing cleaned adjacent ceramic floor tile in
all respects. The Contracting Officer's
representative shall select the location for the
sample of replaced ceramic floor tile.
1.04 QUALITY ASSURANCE
A. The general objective of the installation of new ceramic
floor tile is to recreate the original design intent of
the primary historic spaces. The original design drawings
are to be used for the installation patterns.
B. The general objective for replacement of ceramic floor
tiles is to match the existing floor color, pattern and
the existing adjacent floor tiles, and all other respects
to that the new floor tiles are not visible in the
overall view of the floors.
C. The general objectives for cleaning the ceramic floor
tiles are to remove dirt and grime from the surface
without damaging the underlying material, and to give all
the flooring a clean uniform appearance.
D. Contractor: The work of this section shall be performed
by an installer who is certified in writing by the
ceramic floor tile manufacturer as qualified to complete
the scope of work described. Work in this section shall
be performed by a Contractor possessing a minimum of
three (3) years of specialized experience in the
installation of ceramic floor tiles. The Contractor shall
submit to the Contracting Officer's representative
references of previous work justifying the firm's
experience. The Contracting Officer's representative
reserves the right to approve or disapprove the use of
the Contractor contingent on the firm's experience.
E. In the event that a Contractor wishes to modify any
methods specified in this section, he shall submit his
proposal in writing for consideration and review. The
Contracting Officer's representative will have the right
to ask for samples before final approval. Any such
modifications or changes shall be at no additional cost
to the Government.
1.05 PROJECT/SITE CONDITIONS
A. Environmental Requirements:
1. Maintain environmental conditions and protect work
during and after installation to comply with
referenced standards and manufacturer's printed
2. Vent temporary heaters to exterior to prevent
damage to tile work from carbon dioxide build-up.
3. Maintain temperatures at not less than 50 F in
tiled areas during installation and for seven days
after completion, unless higher temperatures are
required by referenced installation standards or
A. Extra Materials: Deliver stock of maintenance materials
to the Government. Furnish maintenance materials from the
same lot as materials installed and enclosed in
protective packaging with appropriate identifying labels.
1. Furnish not less than two percent maintenance stock
for each type, color, pattern and size of tile
A. Dow Chemical Company
P.O. Box 994
Midland, MI 48686-0994
A. ANSI Standard for Tile Installation Materials: Comply
with the ANSI standard that is referenced along with
those products and materials that are indicated for
setting and grouting.
B. Colors, Textures and Patterns: For tile, grout and other
products requiring selection of colors, surface textures
or other appearance characteristics, provide products to
match the original ceramic tiles in the building.
C. Factory Blending: For tile exhibiting color variations
within the ranges selected during sample submittals,
blend tile in factory and package accordingly so that
tile units taken from one package will show the same
range in colors as those taken from other packages and
will match approved samples.
D. Setting Materials:
1. Dry-Set Portland Cement Mortar: ANSI A118.1.
2. Water-Cleanable, Tile-Setting Epoxy Adhesive: ANSI
E. Grouting Materials:
1. Sand-Portland Cement Grout: ANSI A108.10.
2. Latex-Portland Cement Grout: Comply with ANSI
A118.6 for the following composition:
a. Pre-packaged dry grout mix incorporating dry
polymer additive in the form of a re-
emulsifiable powder to which only water is
added at the project site.
F. Elastomeric Sealants:
1. Compatibility: Provide sealants, joint fillers and
other related materials that are compatible with
one another and with joint substrates under
conditions of service and application, as
demonstrated by testing and field experience.
2. Silicone Sealant: ASTM C 920; Type S; Grade NS;
Class 25; Uses NT, G, A and as applicable to non-
porous joint substrates; formulated with fungicide,
intended for sealing interior ceramic tile joints
and other non-porous substrates that are subject to
in-service exposures of high humidity and
G. Mixing Mortar and Grout:
1. Mix mortar and grout to comply with requirements of
referenced standards and manufacturers to produce
mortar and grout of uniform quality with optimum
performance characteristics for application
2. The grout is to match the original existing grout
in dimension, color and texture. Do not match to
H. Tile Cleaner: Non-abrasive household cleaner such as
"Soft Scrub,"(Dow Chemical Company), or approved equal.
1. Product should be specifically acceptable to tile
manufacturer and grout manufacturer for application
indicated and as recommended by National Tile
Promotion Federation or Ceramic Tile Institute.
A. Carefully remove cracked or otherwise damaged ceramic
tile without damaging surrounding intact tile or damaging
B. Require installer to inspect subfloor surfaces to
determine that they are satisfactory. A satisfactory
subfloor surface is defined as one that is smooth and
free from cracks., holes, ridges and other defects
impairing performance or appearance.
C. Work shall not proceed until the subfloor surfaces have
had all dirt and foreign matter removed and satisfy the
manufacturer's printed instructions on preparation of
substrate for new ceramic tile.
D. Blending: For tile exhibiting color variations within the
ranges selected, verify that tile has been blended in the
factory and packaged accordingly so that tile units taken
from one package will show the same range in colors as
those taken from other packages and will match approved
samples. If not factory blended, either return to the
manufacturer or blend tiles at the project site before
A. Surface Preparation:
1. Prior to tile replacement, clean all existing floor
tiles to be cleaned with a non-abrasive household
2. Remove all cleaner residue by wiping the surfaces
with a damp sponge using clean potable water.
3. Wipe dry.
3.03 ERECTION, INSTALLATION, APPLICATION
A. ANSI Tile Installation Standards: Comply with applicable
parts of the ANSI A108 series for tile installation
standards included under "American National Standard
Specifications for the Installation of Ceramic Tile" for
the type of setting and grouting materials and methods
B. TCA Installation Guidelines: TCA "Handbook for Ceramic
Tile Installation" comply with TCA installation methods
indicated or, if not otherwise indicated, as applicable
to installation conditions shown.
C. Extend tile work into recesses and under or behind
equipment and fixtures to form a complete covering
without interruptions. Terminate work neatly at junctions
within the original tiles.
D. Accurately form intersections and returns. Perform
cutting and drilling of tile without marring visible
surfaces. Carefully grind cut edges of tile abutting
trim, finish or built-in items for straight, aligned
joints. Fit tile closely to electrical outlets, piping,
fixtures and other penetrations so that plates, collars
or covers overlap tile.
E. Joint Patterns: Lay tile joints in grid pattern to match
the original ceramic tile pattern. Provide uniform joint
widths to match existing widths.
F. Expansion Joints: Locate expansion joints and other
sealant filled joints including control, contraction and
isolation joints where originally shown.
G. Grout tile to comply with the requirements of the
following installation standards:
1. Ceramic tile grouts (sand-Portland cement, dry-set,
commercial Portland cement and latex-Portland
cement grouts): ANSI A108.10.
2. To match original cleaned grout.
A. Cleaning New Ceramic Tile: Upon completion of replacement
and grouting, clean all ceramic tile surfaces so they are
free of foreign matter.
1. Remove latex-Portland cement grout residue from
tile as soon as possible.
B. Finished Tile Work: Leave finished installation clean and
free of cracked, chipped, broken, unbonded or otherwise
defective tile work.
A. When recommended by tile manufacturer, apply a protective
coat of neutral protective cleaner to completed tile
work. Protect installed tile work with kraft paper or
other heavy covering during construction period to
prevent staining, damage and wear.
1. Prohibit foot and wheeled traffic from using tiled
floors at least seven days after grouting is
2. Before final inspection, remove protective
coverings and rinse all tile surfaces with a
END OF SECTION