Skip to main content

Historic Preservation - Technical Procedures

Spectitle:

Reducing Lead-Based Paint Hazards Using A Combination Of Abatement And Interim Control Techniques On Windows

Procedure code:

0990004R

Source:

1994 Crm, Vol. 17, No. 4/1997 Windows Conference Paper

Division:

Finishes

Section:

Painting

Last Modified:

02/24/2012

Details:

Reducing Lead-Based Paint Hazards Using A Combination Of Abatement And Interim Control Techniques On Windows



REDUCING LEAD-BASED PAINT HAZARDS USING A COMBINATION OF ABATEMENT
AND INTERIM CONTROL TECHNIQUES ON WINDOWS


THE 1995 HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (HUD) GUIDELINES REGARDING
THE EVALUATION AND CONTROL OF LEAD-BASED PAINT HAZARDS WERE
DEVELOPED IN ORDER TO PROVIDE GUIDANCE IN LEAD ABATEMENT/REDUCTION
WORK REQUIRED FOR FEDERALLY ASSISTED HOUSING PROJECTS.  THOUGH
THESE GUIDELINES ARE NOT ENFORCED ON PRIVATE HOUSING PROJECTS OR
PROJECTS INVOLVING OTHER BUILDING TYPES, THEY ARE A WELL-RECOGNIZED
REFERENCE FOR MAKING BUILDINGS LEAD-SAFE, AND THEIR USE AS A
RESOURCE IS RECOMMENDED IN ANY CONSTRUCTION PROJECT REQUIRING LEAD-
REDUCTION WORK.  FOR THIS REASON, THESE GUIDELINES ARE FREQUENTLY
REFERENCED IN THIS AND OTHER RELATED PROCEDURES.


This procedure includes guidance on removing lead-based paint from
windows using a combination of abatement techniques and interim
control techniques.

Abatement:
    Abatement is classified by HUD as any treatment for
    eliminating lead-based paint that is considered permanent, or
    rather, capable of lasting twenty years.  This may include any
    of the following:  Complete removal of the lead-based paint;
    removal and replacement of the lead-based paint component;
    enclosure of the component or surface; or application of an
    encapsulant coating.  
-    For historic buildings, "Hazard Abatement" is recommended and
    involves eliminating the hazard rather than the entire feature
    or all of the lead-based paint.  This type of action is more
    economical and serves to protect more of the original building
    fabric from being damaged or destroyed.
    Hazard abatement may be achieved by means of removing paint
    from SELECTED surfaces, removing SELECTED features,
    encapsulating DETERIORATED painted surfaces, removing and
    replacing CONTAMINATED soil, and disposal of all hazardous
    waste according to federal, state and local safety
    regulations.

Interim Controls:

    Interim controls are temporary methods of controlling lead-
    based paint hazards and include special cleaning and dust
    removal procedures, stabilization of the existing paint film,
    and special treatment of friction and impact surfaces.
    Abatement, on the other hand, is considered to be a permanent
    treatment for eliminating lead-based paint and may include
    complete removal of the paint or the feature/component itself.
    Interim control techniques are preferred over abatement in
    preservation work since more original material can be retained
    and preserved.  However, regular maintenance is required and
    necessary in order for this type of strategy to be successful.
    For guidance in evaluating mitigation strategies for lead-
    hazard reduction, see 09900-03-S.  For general protection
    measures in lead-based paint hazard-reduction work, see 09900-
    10-S.  For guidance in reducing lead-based paint hazards for
    windows using abatement techniques only or interim control
    techniques only, see 09900-02-R and 09900-03-R respectively.

Interim controls, such as treating friction surfaces, combined with
jamb enclosure is a cost effective means of lead-hazard control.
    This method is preferable when complete treatment of all
    friction surfaces is too time consuming and therefore too
    costly to achieve.
    Jamb liners made of vinyl or aluminum are installed in the
    jamb to cover the channel between the sash and the jamb.
    Trimming the sash to fit within the jamb enclosure may be
    required.
    Some visual integrity is compromised using jamb liners, but it
    is minimal.
    Using this alternative, the original sash can be retained as
    well as the existing pulley and sash weight system.

Sash replacement may be combined with interim control techniques,
such as paint stabilization or selective paint removal.  See 09900-
03-R for guidance in using interim control techniques.
    Sash replacement is only recommended if they are heavily
    deteriorated.
    Sash replacement is costly and results in a loss of original
    fabric.  This practice, therefore, is only recommended if the
    sash are heavily deteriorated (see 09900-02-R).  However,
    given the appropriate circumstances and combined with
    temporary treatments, sash replacement may be an appropriate
    alternative to lead-hazard control.
    NOTE:  JAMB ENCLOSURE COMBINED WITH SASH REPLACEMENT IS NOT AN
    ACCEPTABLE ALTERNATIVE IN PRESERVATION PROJECTS, AS THIS
    METHOD RESULTS IN THE EXCESSIVE LOSS OF HISTORIC FABRIC.

Paint stabilization combined with window trough enclosure is often
an appropriate method of lead-hazard control, if the trough is in
good condition.
    A window trough or well is the horizontal surface area between
    the sash and the storm frame.
    These areas are prone to lead dust accumulation and should be
    cleaned frequently.
    If the window trough is in poor condition, it is advisable to
    thoroughly clean the trough and then install an aluminum or
    wood liner to cover the trough - nailed and caulked in place.
    Wood is more expensive, but preferable in preservation
    projects.  With wood, it is also possible that the sash may
    need to be trimmed slightly to allow for the thickness of the
    wood.

                         END OF SECTION