Installing New Glazed Wall Tiles

Procedure code:
931010S
Source:
Federal Building/Warehouse, Wisconsin - Gsa
Division:
Finishes
Section:
Ceramic Tile
Last Modified:
02/06/2017

PART 1---GENERAL

1.01 SUMMARY

A. This procedure includes guidance on installing new glazed wall tiles to replace lost or severely damaged portions of existing ceramic tile, or to enlarge or alter an area of existing/historic ceramic tile walls. GENERALLY, THIS WORK SHOULD BE ACCOMPLISHED BY A EXPERIENCED CONTRACTOR.

B. Ceramic tile companies were emerging in the late 1870s, largely manufacturing encaustic tiles. White and colored ceramic tiles became available in the mid-1890s. Also available by the mid-1890s were decorative tiles with colored ready-mixed glazes.

C. The color of glazed tile comes from the glaze itself, as opposed to the clay, oxides or additives, which provide the color for unglazed tiles. Glazes were usually applied by dipping the clay piece into the glaze or by brush applying the glaze over the surface. Common materials for making glazes included white lead, flint, or china clays mixed with metallic oxides to provide the color. A wide range of colors could be produced from different combinations.

D. See 01100-07-S for general project guidelines to be reviewed along with this procedure. These guidelines cover the following sections:

  1. Safety Precautions
  2. Historic Structures Precautions
  3. Submittals
  4. Quality Assurance
  5. Delivery, Storage and Handling
  6. Project/Site Conditions
  7. Sequencing and Scheduling
  8. General Protection (Surface and Surrounding)

    These guidelines should be reviewed prior to performing this procedure and should be followed, when applicable, along with recommendations from the Regional Historic Preservation Officer (RHPO).

1.02 REFERENCES

A. American National Standards Institute, Inc. (ANSI), 
1430 Broadway, New York, NY 10018.

B. TCA Installation Guidelines: 
TCA "Handbook for Ceramic Tile Installation" comply with TCA installation methods indicated.

1.03 SUBMITTALS

A. Product Data: Product data for each type of product specified.

B. Samples: Samples for initial selection purposes in form of manufacturer's color charts consisting of actual tiles or sections of tile showing full range of colors, textures, and patterns available for each type and composition of tile indicated. Include samples of grout and accessories involving color selection.
 

1.04 QUALITY ASSURANCE

A. Installer Qualifications: Engage an experienced Installer who has successfully completed tile installations similar in material, design, and extent to that indicated for project.

B. Single-Source Responsibility for Tile: Obtain each color, grade, finish, type, composition and variety of tile from a single source with resources to provide products of consistent quality in appearance and physical properties without delaying progress of the work.

C. Single-Source Responsibility for Setting and Grouting Materials: Obtain ingredients of a uniform quality from one manufacturer for each cementitious and admixture component and from one source or producer for each aggregate.

 

1.05 DELIVERY, STORAGE AND HANDLING

A. Packing and Shipping:
Deliver and store packaged materials in original containers with seals unbroken and labels intact until time of use. Comply with requirement of ANSI A137.1 for labeling sealed tile packages.

B. Storage and Protection:

  1. Prevent damage or contamination to materials by water, freezing, foreign matter, and other causes.
  2. Handle tile with temporary protective coating on exposed surfaces to prevent coated surfaces from contacting backs or edges of other units. If despite these precautions coating does contact bonding surfaces of tile, remove coating from bonding surfaces before setting tile.

C. Extra Materials:

  1. Deliver extra materials to Owner. Furnish extra materials that match products installed as described below, packaged with protective covering for storage and identified with labels clearly describing contents.
    • a. Tiel and Trim Units: Furnish quantity of full- size units equal to 3 percent of amount installed, for each type, composition, color, pattern, and size.

1.06 PROJECT/SITE CONDITIONS

A. Environmental Requirements: Maintain environmental conditions and protect work during and after installation to comply with referenced standards and manufacturer's printed recommendations.

PART 2---PRODUCTS

2.01 MANUFACTURERS

A. American-Olean Tile Co., Inc.
1000 Cannon Ave.
P.O. Box 271 Lansdale, PA 19446-0271
215/855-1111

B. Bostik, Inc.
Bostik Construction Products Div.
211 Boston St.
Middleton, MA 01949
800/726-7845

C. Custom Building Products
800/282-8786

2.02 MATERIALS

A. ANSI Standard for Tile Installation Materials:
Comply with ANSI standard referenced with products and materials indicated for setting and grouting.

B. ANSI Standard for Ceramic Tile:

  1. Comply with ANSI A137.1 "American National Standard Specifications for Ceramic Tile" for types, compositions, and grades of tile indicated.
  2. Furnish tile complying with "Standard Grade" requirements unless otherwise indicated.

C. Colors, Textures and Patterns: Where manufacturer's standard products are indicated for tile, grout, and other products requiring selection of colors, surface textures, patterns, and other appearance characteristics, provide specific products or materials complying with the following requirements:

  1. Match existing tile glaze color, texture and pattern as closely as possible. RHPO approval is required.
  2. Provide tile trim and accessories that match color and finish of adjoining flat tile. RHPO approval is required.

D. Factory Blending: For tile exhibiting color variations within the ranges selected during sample submittals, blend tile in factory and package accordingly so that tile units taken from one package show the same range in colors as those taken from other packages and match approved samples.

E. Mounting: Where factory-mounted tile is required, provide back or edge-mounted tile assemblies as standard with manufacturer unless another mounting method is indicated.

F. Tile Products:

  1. Unglazed Ceramic Mosaic Tile as manufactured by American Olean Tile Co., Inc., Dale-Tile Corporation, U.S. Ceramic Tile Co., or approved equal. Provide factory-mounted flat tile complying with the following requirements:
    • a. Nominal Facial Dimensions: To match existing dimensions.
    • b. Nominal Thickness: To match existing thickness.
    • c. Face: To match existing finish.
  2. Glazed wall tile as manufactured by American Olean Tile Co., Inc., Dale-Tile Corporation, U.S. Ceramic Tile Co., or approved equal. Provide flat tile complying with the following requirements:
    • a. Nominal Facial Dimensions: To match existing dimensions.
    • b. Nominal Thickness: To match existing thickness.
    • c. Face: To match existing finish.
    • d. Mounting: Factory back-mounted.
  3. Trim Units: Provide tile trim units to match characteristics of adjoining flat tile and to comply with following requirements:
    • a. Size: As indicated, coordinated with sizes and coursing of adjoining flat tile where applicable.
    • b. Shapes: As required to match existing tile conditions and as selected from manufacturer's standard shapes.

G. Setting Materials: Portland Cement Mortar Installation Materials: Provide materials complying with ANSI A108.1 and as specified below.

  1. Latex Adhesive (water emulsion) described below, serving as replacement for part or all of gauging water, of type specifically recommended by latex additive manufacturer for use with job-mixed Portland cement mortar bed, as manufactured by American Olean Tile Co., Inc., Bostik Construction Products Division, Custom Building Products, or approved equal.
    • a. Latex Additive: Manufacturer's standard.
  2. Organic Adhesive: ANSI A136.1, Type I, as manufactured by American Olean Tile Co., Inc., Bostik Construction Products Division, Custom Building Products, or approved equal.

H. Grouting Materials:

  1. Commercial Portland Cement Grout: ANSI A118.6, color as indicated, as manufactured by American Olean Tile Co., Inc., Bostik Construction Products Division, Custom Building Products, or approved equal.
  2. Dry-Set Grout: ANSI A118.6, color as indicated, as manufactured by American Olean Tile Co., Inc., Bostik Construction Products Division, Custom Building Products, or approved equal.

I. Mixing Mortars and Grout: Mix mortars and grouts to comply with requirements of referenced standards and manufacturers including those for accurate proportioning of materials, water, or additive content; type of mixing equipment, selection of mixer speeds, mixing containers, mixing time and other procedures needed to produce mortars and grouts of uniform quality with optimum performance characteristics for application indicated.

PART 3---EXECUTION

3.01 EXAMINATION

A. Verification of Conditions:

  1. Examine substrates and areas where tile will be installed, with Installer present, for compliance with requirements for installation tolerances and other conditions affecting performance of installed tile.
    • a. Verify that substrates for setting tile are firm, dry, clean, and free from oil or waxy films and curing compounds.
    • b. Verify that installation of grounds, anchors, recessed frames, electrical and mechanical units of work, and similar items located in or behind tile have been completed before installing tile.
  2. For tile exhibiting color variations within the ranges selected during sample submittals, verify that tile has been blended in factory and packaged accordingly so that tile units taken from one package show the same range in colors as those taken from other packages and match approved samples. If not factory blended, either return to manufacturer or blend tiles at project site before installing.
  3. Do not proceed with installation until unsatisfactory conditions have been corrected.

3.02 ERECTION, INSTALLATION, APPLICATION

A. MATCH THE HISTORIC CHARACTER AND PATTERN OF THE CERAMIC TILE IN ALL SPACES CONTAINING OR CONTIGUOUS WITH EXISTING TILE.

B. ANSI Tile Installation Standard: Comply with parts of ANSI 108 series of tile installation standards included under "American National Standard Specifications for Installation of Ceramic Tile" that apply to type of setting and grouting materials and methods indicated.

C. Extend tile work into recesses and under or behind equipment and fixtures to form a complete covering without interruptions except as otherwise shown. Terminate work neatly at obstructions, edges, and corners without disrupting pattern or joint alignments.

D. Accurately form intersections and returns. Perform cutting and drilling of tile without marring visible surfaces. Carefully grind cut edges of tile abutting trim, finish, or built-in items for straight aligned joints. Fit tile closely to electrical outlets, piping, fixtures, and other penetrations so that plates, collars, or covers overlap tile.

E. Jointing Pattern: Unless otherwise shown, lay tile in grid pattern. Align joints when adjoining tiles on floor, base, walls, and trim are same size. Lay out tile work and center tile fields in both directions in each space or on each wall area. Adjust to minimize tile cutting. Provide uniform joint widths unless otherwise shown.

  1. For tile mounted in sheets, make joints between tile sheets same width as joints within tile sheets so that extent of each sheet is not apparent in finished work.

F. Lay out tile wainscots to next full tile beyond dimensions indicated.

G. Grout tile to comply with the requirements of the following installation standards:

  1. For ceramic tile grouts (sand-Portland cement, dry- set, commercial Portland cement, and latex-Portland cement grouts), comply with ANSI A108.10.

H. Wall Tile Installation Methods:

  1. Install types of tile designated for wall application to comply with requirements indicated below for setting-bed methods, TCA installation methods related to subsurface wall conditions, and grout types:
    • a. Organic Adhesive: ANSI A108.4
    • b. Solid Backing, Interior: TCA W223.

3.03 ADJUSTING/CLEANING

A. Cleaning: Upon completion of placement and grouting, clean all ceramic tile surfaces so they are free of foreign matter.

  1. Remove latex-Portland cement grout residue from tile as soon as possible.
  2. Unglazed tile may be cleaned with acid solutions only when permitted by tile and grout manufacturer's printed instructions, but no sooner than 14 days after installation. Protect metal surfaces, cast iron, and vitreous plumbing fixtures from effects of acid cleaning. Flush surface with clean water before and after cleaning.

B. Finished Tile Work: Leave finished installation clean and free of cracked, chipped, broken, un-bonded, and otherwise defective tile work.

C. Provide final protection and maintain conditions in a manner acceptable to manufacturer and installer that ensures that tile is without damage or deterioration at time of Substantial Completion.

  1. When recommended by tile manufacturer, apply a protective coat of neutral protective cleaner to completed tile walls and floors. Protect installed tile work with kraft paper or other heavy covering during construction period to prevent staining, damage, and wear.
  2. Prohibit foot and wheel traffic from tiled floors for at least 7 days after grouting is completed.

D. Before final inspection, remove protective coverings and rinse neutral cleaner from tile surfaces.

 

 

END OF SECTION

Last Reviewed 2017-02-06